Disclaimer: English Kinda Thing

The sole purpose of the "English Kinda Thing" is to document my attempts to correct my own mistakes in standard English usage and to share the resources I find. In no way do I attempt to teach nobody English through these blurbs--just as I intend not to teach nobody to be a neurotic and psychotic handicap in Ratology Reloaded or Down with Meds! :-)

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Frankish & Evans (2009). The duality of mind: An historical perspective

Frankish, Keith, & Evans, Jonathan St B. T. (2009). The duality of mind: An historical perspective. In J. S. B. T. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds : dual processes and beyond (pp. 1-35). Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Lord... apparently... the system 1 and 2 can be trace all the way back to Mr. Plato... 8-O

(Never would I be able to make the association myself.)

  1. Freud: System 1--> id; system 2--> ego.  
  2. Gestalt psychology: "we can see here an anticipation of contemporary applications of dual-process theory, in which System 2 thinking is seen as necessary to intervene upon default, habitual System 1 thinking, in order for people to solve problems of an abstract or novel nature." (P. 11)
  3. the origin of modern dual-process theories is sometimes cited as stemming from the distinction between controlled and automatic processes in attention made by Schnieder and Shiffrin (1977; also, Shiffrin and Schneider 1977)

After the historical perspectives, on the dawn of the Dual System theory

"The terms ‘System 1’ and ‘System 2’ were coined by Stanovich (1999), but the dual-system theory 
was devised by a combination of authors, and has much earlier origins." (p. 18)

  1. "Epstein (1994) proposed an integration of Freudian and cognitive ideas about the unconscious. Among contemporary dual-process theorists he is unusual, if not unique, in crediting the Freudian dual-process distinction between primary and secondary process thinking, and also in firmly attaching emotional processing to what has now become known as System 1." (p. 19)
  2. "Evans and Over (1996) developed the notion of implicit and explicit cognitive systems, drawing upon the evolutionary ideas of Reber... consciousness gives us the possibility to deal with novelty and anticipate the future.’ The most distinctive aspect of Evans and Over’s contribution, perhaps, is their emphasis on the idea of hypothetical thinking, which requires imagination of possibilities and mental simulations and the ability to decouple suppositions from actual beliefs. This kind of thinking they argued to be distinctively human and to require the recently evolved, second cognitive system." (p. 20)
  3. "Sloman’s (1996) proposal of two systems of reasoning, described as associative and rule-based respectively." (p. 20)
  4. "Keith Stanovich (1999; 2004; this volume), who coined the terms ‘System 1’ and ‘System 2’... he suggests that much educational effort must be devoted to developing System 2 thinking skills. He also suggests that, uniquely among animals, we have a cognitive system (2) on a ‘long-leash’ from the genes, which allows us to rebel and pursue our goals as individuals, and not necessarily those programmed by evolution. " (p. 20)

"The biological brain, Dennett claims, is a collection of specialized hardwired subsystems, operating in parallel and competing for control of action. The conscious mind, on the other hand, is a virtual machine, which we create for ourselves by engaging in various learned behaviours — principally habits of 
private speech, either overt or silent... By engaging in private speech, Dennett argues, we effectively reprogram our biological brains, causing their parallel machinery to mimic the behaviour of a serial computer." (p. 26)

"In the case of utterances, Carruthers argues, such rehearsal generates auditory feedback (inner speech) that is processed by the speech comprehension subsystem and tends to produce effects at the modular level appropriate to the thoughts the utterances express. Since utterances may combine outputs from different modules, this implements a form of domain general thinking, and cycles of mental rehearsal create a flexible domain general reasoning system, using only the basic resources of a modular mind equipped with a language faculty." (P. 26-27) 

Anyone ever wonder why I do so much self-talk... my VM ware at work, I guess... 8-O lol

No comments:

Post a Comment