Disclaimer: English Kinda Thing

The sole purpose of the "English Kinda Thing" is to document my attempts to correct my own mistakes in standard English usage and to share the resources I find. In no way do I attempt to teach nobody English through these blurbs--just as I intend not to teach nobody to be a neurotic and psychotic handicap in Ratology Reloaded or Down with Meds! :-)

Wednesday, July 17, 2013

Shimamura (2000). Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition

A paper touching upon the question I have between Baddeley's central executive and the control department of metacognition.

Shimamura, Arthur P. (2000). Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 9(2), 313-323.

"There is considerable convergence of issues associated with metacognition, executive control, working memory, and frontal lobe function." (p. 313)

Metacognition and aspects of executive control

"Fernandez-Duque et all. review findings from basic cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology.  These findings suggest a strong relationship between metacognitive regulation and executive control  They emphasize the biological bases of metacognition and suggest that midfrontal brain region are part of a neural circuit that enables metacognitive regulation." (p. 131)

"There is evidence to suggest that the frontal cortex contributes to metacognition." (p. 314)--similar to central executive.

"investigations of executive control have assessed and defined specific components--such as selecting stimulus information, maintaining information in working memory, and manipulating information processing...  The linking of metacognition to aspects of executive control offers opportunities to define better cognitive components of metacognition.

"As suggested by Fernandez-Duque et al., supervisory models, such as the one proposed by Norman and Shallice (1986) and integrated in Baddeley's model of working memory (Baddeley, 1986), have features that resemble metacognitive control.  In particular, both metacognitive control and executive control share the primary feature of enabling top-down modulation of cognitive process." (p. 315)

"Executive control can be defined as processes involved in the selection, activation, and manipulation of information in working memory.  In terms of the Nelson-Narens model, object-level information that is being monitored is in working memory, and top-down control of that information involves meta-level control." (p. 315)

Aspects of executive control and Dynamic Filtering Theory (p. 316)
Executive process Related concept Benchmark task
Selecting Selective attention Stroop
Maintaining Short-term memory Digit span
Updating Monitoring n-back
Rerouting Set shifting Task switching

"Rerouting involves a global shift of information processing--from stimulus registration to response selection." (p. 317) Task/plan switching

"patients with frontal lobe lesions have difficulty rerouting process from a previously successful or dominant set to a new set."
Albeit the differential etiology, I know what it means to have difficulty rerouting a dominant processing (paranoid delusional with grandiosity) to a new one.

Theories of executive control and frontal lobe function

"Metcalfe's CHARM model (Metcalfe, 1993)... metacognitive evaluations, such as feelings of knowing, are based on a familiarity check that is computed between new information and what is already stored in memory." (p. 318)

"in terms of behavioral outcome, it is extremely difficult to differentiate the selection of appropriate responses from the inhibition of inappropriate responses." (p. 319)
Look into the psychotic population... you will know how important inhibition is...

"There is, however, some physiological evidence to suggest that the prefrontal cortex is involved in inhibiting activation in posterior cortex.  Knight et al. (1989) showed that patients with frontal lobe lesions exhibit posterior evoked potentials that are greater than those observed in control subjects.  That is, sensory evoked potentials appeared to be disinhibited as a result of frontal lobe damage."

Concluding remarks
"Fernandez-Duque et al. integrate emotional and cognitive regulation in their analysis of metacognition."-- cognitive and emotion."

"increased activation in the anterior cingulate for both cognitive regulation and emotional regulation.  It is unclear, however, whether this brain region serves all forms of task setting or selective attention or whether there is some special link between emotional and cognitive control." (p. 320)

As of 2000... wonder things might have changed since?

"To what extent can issues of emotional regulation be linked to metacognitive research?  Perhaps, as suggested by Fernandez-Duque et al, the same brain activations involved in emotional regulation are also involved in cognitive regulation.  Another possibility is that different areas in frontal cortex control different forms of processing.  In other words, there are various metalevel systems that monitor and control different aspects of information processing." (p. 320)

No comments:

Post a Comment