Disclaimer: English Kinda Thing

The sole purpose of the "English Kinda Thing" is to document my attempts to correct my own mistakes in standard English usage and to share the resources I find. In no way do I attempt to teach nobody English through these blurbs--just as I intend not to teach nobody to be a neurotic and psychotic handicap in Ratology Reloaded or Down with Meds! :-)

Monday, July 8, 2013

Heckhausen, Heinz. (1987). Causal attribution patterns for achievement outcomes: individual differences, possible types and their origins

Texts in blue are my notes/thoughts.

Heckhausen, Heinz. (1987). Causal attribution patterns for achievement outcomes: individual differences, possible types and their origins. In F. E. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 143-184). Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Achievement motivation and personality variables
  1. The valence of incentive for success or failure
  2. Personal standards of excellence (level of aspiration)
  3. Attribution pattern (The focus of this paper)

Intraindividual asymmetry of attribution patterns

An interesting attribution pattern

Failure Success
Self External var. Self
Other More impartial More inpartial
Me All my bad.  Shut the front door and work on it. Get done with that self issue... move on to something else a million a blue moon ago already Every dog has its day… Got lucky… lol

Interesting notion about issues such as low self-concept...

Sure, I remembered the time when I didn't want to work too hard in high school because I knew if I didn't work hard and didn't do well, I could always blame it on not working hard... considered by me as an external factor since it would not be an indicator of my personal attribute... like not too bright.  That was some mechanism helping me to sustain my self-concept until the time comes when I came face to face with its outcome-- I was the top (counting from the bottom) in the first mock exam for the national joint entrance exam.  A catch 22... were I to claim that I made a lot of effort, what it would mean is I have low ability...   Oops. (And, yes, I started my mental career from neurosis before progressing into psychosis etc.)

It also reminds me of the phase of deconstruction that started in 2007 and still goes on and on since I could find figure out what I have to deconstruct... The phase of deconstruction that started about 2 months before I went back to the cuckoo's nest... when I had no body, no head, no nothing other than all them stuffs piling up in my room acquire through my ebay era.  Today, do I have low self-concept?  Don't think so... if not simply donno.  Maybe I don't quite give a bag of beans about myselves (a key to my survival) while, be honest, I really am nothing. lol 8-X Negative self-concept?  Ain't no nothing classic while ain't no nothing either, I guess?  Some out-of-whack developmental outcome? 8-O

"Recent findings are surprising, they show the degree to which individuals will hold to a preconceived notion even though it has been disproved by the facts (Ross & Lepper, 1980).  Can this phenomenon be explained by the assumption that an attribution pattern acquired in a earlier developmental phase is subsequently transformed into a mode of information processing that already distorts perception at a pre-attentive level?  Does this become an attribution pattern incapable of self-correction? Even though the individual has had positive experiences that contradict the negative self image, does this attribution pattern become "immune" to modification? Or, on the contrary, does attribution that reduce self-esteem constitute a cognitive process motivated by the intention to avoid long exposure to achievement situation and the self-evaluation entail?  So far, no conclusive statement can be made as to which of these explanations might be correct." (P. 146)

Attributional error: "Alloy's and Abramson's conclusion was that depressives are 'sadder but wiser'"  because they were able to draw a surprisingly accurate distinction between the efficacy of their own undertakings and chance events while non-depressive tend to overestimate their ability.

Almost sounding like the classic Taiwanese song... 海海人生... 8-O

Since I started my mental career as a depressive, could it have helped my attempt to approximate reality? 8-O

"It may appear paradoxical that of all people it should be these problem groups who attain a more realistic self-evaluation.  But is a realistic self-evaluation "normal" and helpful?  Is not a certain measure of self-esteem-enhancing self-deception "normal," or at least necessary, for one to cope with the problems of life?  Is such self-deception not essential to prevent one from giving up hope too soon in the pursuance of the many goals that are not easily attained?  Does self-deception not enable one to actually to achieve more than could be expected when starting an undertaking?" (p. 148)

Excellent question... as one of the queens of self-deception... such shall I refrain since, once one step in... no telling whether I can pull myself out.  At the same time, the work I put into getting the book done and what it takes to pull it through... Is it the self-deception mechanism that sustains it by making me feel that I can retire to sell my bubble tea after it is done?  Don't think so... I hope so... and knowing how "futurisitc" I can be as a psychotic, I entertain not--the future. Not to mention that... if my disordered thoughts want me to get the book done, ain't no nothing could stop it... not even the meds.  Might as well get done with it so that it won't be like a tail that I can not shake off.  lol sigh

Interindividual contrast in attribution patterns: convergence of research domains

  1. Internal versus external reinforcement control
  2. Depression
  3. Learned helplessness in schoolchildren: Dweck cited repeatedly--mastery orientation.
  4. Achievement motives: Success vs. failure
  5. Self-concept: "Children low in self-esteem did not attribute their success outcome to high expenditure of effort but rather to good luck... (Nicholls, 1976)" C'est moi!  Oops la!  
  6. Sex differences: Boys--attribution to motivation while girls--attribution to ability=> differential environmental impact on the development of attributional pattern even with the "same" environment.

The author further presented several types of attribution patterns and their emergence.

Attribution pattern=>schema loaded with bias?

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