Disclaimer: English Kinda Thing

The sole purpose of the "English Kinda Thing" is to document my attempts to correct my own mistakes in standard English usage and to share the resources I find. In no way do I attempt to teach nobody English through these blurbs--just as I intend not to teach nobody to be a neurotic and psychotic handicap in Ratology Reloaded or Down with Meds! :-)

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Stanovich (1999) Who is rational? : Studies of individual differences in reasoning

Where system 1 and system 2 are coined...

Stanovich, K. E. (1999) Who is rational? : Studies of individual differences in reasoning,  (Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).

"It helps to distinguish between evolutionary adaptation and instrumental rationality.... Anderson (1990) accepted Stich's... argument that evolutionary adaptation (hereafter termed evolutionary rationality) does not guarantee perfect human rationality in the normative sense." (p. 148)

"Evolutionary rationality has dissociated from normative rationality--where the later viewed as utility maximization for the individual organism (instrumental rationality) and the former is defined as survival probability at the level of the gene." (p. 149)

"It is hypothesized that the features of System 1 are designed to very closely track increases in the reproduction probability of genes.  System 2, though also clearly an evolutionary product, is primarily a control system focused on the interest of the whole person.  Although its overall function was no doubt fitness enhancing, it is the primary maximizer of an individual's personal utility.  Maximizing the latter will occasionally result in sacrificing genetic fitness.

(Why I am not even entertaining having children? 8-O lol 8-X)

Thus, the hypothesis is that System 1 is more specifically attuned than is System 2 to evolutionary rationality.  System 1 process represent the collection of the processes that are goal maximizing for the genes--the reproductive goals of fecundity, longevity, and replication accuracy.  System 2, in contrast, maximizes goal satisfaction for people--the survil machines for the genes.  Because System 2 is more attuned to normative rationality, it is System 2 that will seek to fulfill the individual's goals in the minority of cases where those goals conflict with the responses triggered by system 1.

... in the vast majority of mundane situations, the evolutionary rationality embodied in System 1 processes will also serve the goals of normative rationality.  Accurately navigating around objects in the natural world fostered evolutionary adaptation, and it likewise serves our personal goals as we carry out our lives in the modern world... Nevertheless, the assumption that we are adapted in the evolutionary sense--the assumption made in so many of the adaptionist models--does not entail normative rationality.  Thus, situations where evolutionary and normative rationality dissociate might well put the two processing systems in conflict with each other." (p. 151)

System 2 theory... there is no uni-reality in life and the personal System 1 components devised for mes, myselves, and Is... as a pursuit to cope with psychosis.  What I have to do might not maximize the survival of the "genetic fitness" though instrumental of letting me kick on kicking finishing up spitting out already too many my words.  

Albeit evolutionary this and that, isn't the grasping of the dual-reality principle yet another manifestation of genetic preparedness? 

Regardless, the gene prepared us and the socialization further foster what we are prepared for... how it is interpreted... dependent on the interpreter...

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